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2012 Registration - 2012 Program & Presenters - Sponsors - FAQs

The next Symposium will take place June 3-6, 2015. Program and presenters for the 2015 Symposium will be posted here by March 30, 2015.

2012 Program and Presenters

Sunday, July 22, 2012 6:30-8:30 p.m.

If I Didn’t Understand It, How Do I Explain It?

Presented by Roger Williams
English, with ASL Interpretation
Due to a variety of factors, ranging from educational deprivation to co-occuring disabilities to substance abuse, linguistic heterogenity is much greater in the Deaf community than in the hearing community. Interpreters in healthcare settings encounter clients who demonstrate some type of dysfluency on a daily basis, yet often lack the tools to respond to the challenge in an effective manner. This presentation will provide a framework to understand and describe different types of dysfluency as well as provide an overview of available tools to deal with these situations.
Roger Williams is currently the Director for Deaf Services at the South Carolina Department of Mental Health. He was previously the Program Manager at the Piedmont Center for Mental Health Services and the Social Worker IV and Program Coordinator at the Deaf Services Program at Patrick Harris Psychiatric Hospital. He received his B.S.W. from the Rochester Institute of Technology and his M.S.W., specializing in community mental health, from the University of Illinois. In addition, he has a private practice specializing in consulting and training related to the needs of deaf adults in the mental health system. He also has interpreted in a wide variety of settings, including the NAD and RID conferences and in forensic and court settings.

Mr. Williams is a S.C. Licensed Master Social Worker and holds an RID Certificate of Transliteration and an SCAD/NAD IAP Level 5 Interpreting Certificate. He is the 1989 winner of the N.C. Governor's Advocacy Council for Persons with Disabilities Distinguished Service Award, the 1979 winner of the Robert D. Frisina Award for deaf/hearing integration, the 1996 winner of the “Outstanding Transition to the Community” from the South Carolina Mental Health Association and the 2001 “Interpreter of the Year” for the South Carolina Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf.

As the parent of four deaf children and two hearing children, a licensed foster parent and the spouse of a deaf adult, Mr. Williams is active in a number of local, state-wide, regional and national advocacy and social organizations, including the past president of the American Society for Deaf Children.

Monday, July 23, 2012 9-10:45 a.m.

Panel Discussion on Dysfluent Language

Facilitated by Roger Williams

Monday, July 23, 2012 11-12 p.m.

Immunizations: How Interpreters Can Protect Themselves in Medical Settings

Presented by Todd Agan
This session will highlight healthcare maintenance for the medical interpreter. Interpreters will learn about the standard screenings and immunizations recommended by the CDC that are becoming common mandates for staff members and contractors in healthcare systems nationwide. Information regarding the inherent dangers and potential repercussions of non-compliance to policies aimed at protecting the well-being of patients, staff, contractors and the community at large will be presented from the point of view of a seasoned medical interpreter. Participants will come away with a clearer understanding of the unique healthcare risks faced when interpreting in medical settings and how to best mitigate these hazards.

Todd S. K. Agan, BSI, CI and CT, Texas IV holds a Bachelor degree in Interpreting from Western Oregon State College (now Western Oregon University). Currently he is a full time member of the medical school faculty and the lead designated interpreter (DI) for a deaf internal medicine physician at the University of Texas Health Science Center San Antonio; and an adjunct professor in the San Antonio College Interpreter Education Program, teaching Greek & Latin Roots, Introduction to Medical Interpreting, and Interpreting Seminar. Todd also consults regarding interpreting for deaf medical professionals. Seeing the medical environment in a unique way, Todd realizes that there is much more to medical interpreting than just interpreting.  Strong ethics, a working knowledge of medical terminology, understanding the American healthcare system, and how interpreters in medical settings play a role in public health are all issues that Todd feels that every interpreter working in a medical setting should understand.

A Pilot Consultation Group for Medical and Mental Health Interpreters

Presented by Karen Malcolm
This presentation will report on a creative collaboration that took place this past year to provide consultation for interpreters working in medical and mental health settings. Two organizations that contract with interpreters in these two settings funded a facilitated monthly consultation meeting, in recognition of interpreters’ need for a structured environment to reflect on the challenges they face, and the decisions they make. Interpreters working in these settings primarily work alone, and are constantly required to make decisions on how to handle complex interactions as well as their own reactions. Both settings have the potential for strong emotional content, which may affect interpreters and even lead to burn out and vicarious trauma if the interpreter is not provided with support.
Employing the Demand Control Schema as developed by Dean and Pollard, the foals of this group were to enhance the quality of services provided to clients, ensuring that interpreters were continuing to develop their expertise in these settings. In addition this group aimed to assist the organizations in retaining interpreters by providing professional discussion and strategies to avoid burnout.
This presentation will describe the process of establishing the consultation group, as well as the kinds of issues that interpreters brought to the meeting. Suggestions will be offered about how similar groups could be established in other communities.

Karen Malcolm is a Canadian certified interpreter and interpreter educator who has been interpreting for 28 years, specializing in mental health and medical settings for the last 18. She has been teaching interpreting to both novice and experienced interpreters for 20 years, and holds a Master of Science in Education (Teaching Interpreting) from Western Maryland College (now McDaniel College). She has taught workshops and courses throughout Canada and the U.S., including a year at Gallaudet University, in the M.A. in Interpretation program. She is currently faculty in the Program of Sign Language Interpretation at Douglas College, New Westminster, BC.

Deaf and Hard of Hearing Physicians: Accommodations, Education and Practice

Presented by Christopher Moreland
While many deaf community members, interpreters and medical educators are well aware of the existence of deaf and hard of hearing healthcare professionals, and those entering the professions, no data have described the prevalence of D/HH professionals or the accommodations they utilize under the Americans with Disabilities Act. We will describe the results of a national survey of this population, including the characteristics of D/HH physicians, specific accommodations used, and the frequency and nature of their use, including signed language and oral interpretation services, as well as their impact on career satisfaction.

Christopher (Chris) Moreland originally hails from Texas, where he obtained an MD in 2005 from the University of Texas (UT) at Houston Medical School. At the University of California, Davis, he completed his Internal Medicine residency in 2008 and his postdoctoral General Internal Medicine fellowship and MPH in 2010. Having returned home to Texas with his wife (an emergency medicine physician), he now practices as an academic hospitalist and assistant professor at UTHSC San Antonio.  Among his interests are patient-physician communication and the reduction of health disparities relating to the deaf and limited English proficient communities.  He also enjoys contributing to medical education, particularly that of deaf and hard of hearing health professionals and interpreters.

Monday, July 23, 2012 11-5 p.m.

Medical Interpreting as Seen through a Deaf Patient’s Perspective

Presented by Shawn Broderick
This seminar will provide a framework allowing certified interpreters and those with years of experience working in medical settings to explore medical interpreting through a Deaf patient perspective. Key topics will include: roles and responsibilities of medical interpreters as they pertain to HIPAA, personal and professional boundaries, and self care. Participants will examine and consider Deaf and Deaf Blind patients’ experiences using the services of interpreters in medical settings, analyze the interpreter’s function within the “Triangle Team” approach, and discuss strategies on how best to relay pertinent patient information. Within this seminar, participants will engage in robust discussions concerning the interpreting work they do in medical settings. Several video clips of Deaf people telling their personal stories of using medical interpreters in hospitals will be shown. Participants will be given ample opportunity to ask questions of the presenter and of one another as well. This seminar will be presented in ASL, without English interpretation.

Shawn Broderick has presented workshops on interpreting throughout the nation. His background ranges from interpreter educator, VRS trainer, to Deaf Interpreter. His current area of focus is interpreting within medical settings and through video. He hopes to educate medical interpreters about Deaf patients' experiences.

Monday, July 23, 2012 1:30-5 p.m.

Interpreting for a Deaf Mental Health Professional

Presented by Mel Whalen
There are numerous training opportunities for interpreters wishing to increase their ability to work with Deaf mental health clients. Very few, however, are available to increase interpreters’ confidence in working with a Deaf mental health student or professional within the numerous clinical contexts in which their own training occurs.
The presenter, Mel Whalen, recently completed a full-time internship in clinical psychology at the University of Michigan, working primarily with hearing clients. She selected and trained a small group of interpreters who have worked with her for the past seven years of her doctoral program.
Workshop content will be aimed at the intermediate level, primarily for certified interpreters who have worked widely within the medical and mental health fields for several years. Topics to be covered include:
• Understanding the different degrees and program training requirements
• Witnessing micro-aggression on a daily basis
• Balancing friendship and professional relationships
• Interpreting in the psychiatric emergency room
• Interpreting psychological testing for hearing clients
• Dealing with vicarious trauma on the job
• Understanding current controversies within the mental health field
The workshop will also include time for in-depth discussion on topics of particular interest to participants.

Mel Whalen is a Deaf limited licensed clinical psychologist.  She completed her undergraduate training at Smith College and earned a master’s degree in Interpreting in Australia, while on a Fulbright scholarship.  She recently completed her clinical internship year at the University of Michigan and is finishing her dissertation on Deaf transgender identity development.

I’m a Healthcare Interpreter, Not a Legal Interpreter, Right?

Presented by Roger Williams
As interpreters, we often discuss legal, healthcare and mental health interpreting as if they are discreet entities with clear boundaries and no overlap. However, in practice, nothing could be further from the truth. Interpreting in the healthcare setting is fraught with legal implications. These include situations where the interpreter is a mandated reporter, could be called as a witness for either the hospital or the patient, or has the responsibility to ensure that the clinician is meeting their legal obligations. Interpreters need to be conscious of these overlapping, and sometimes conflicting, expectations. This presentation will assist the working interpreter with becoming conscious of these multiple expectations and incorporating that awareness into their practice.
Roger Williams is currently the Director for Deaf Services at the South Carolina Department of Mental Health. He was previously the Program Manager at the Piedmont Center for Mental Health Services and the Social Worker IV and Program Coordinator at the Deaf Services Program at Patrick Harris Psychiatric Hospital. He received his B.S.W. from the Rochester Institute of Technology and his M.S.W., specializing in community mental health, from the University of Illinois. In addition, he has a private practice specializing in consulting and training related to the needs of deaf adults in the mental health system. He also has interpreted in a wide variety of settings, including the NAD and RID conferences and in forensic and court settings.

Mr. Williams is a S.C. Licensed Master Social Worker and holds an RID Certificate of Transliteration and an SCAD/NAD IAP Level 5 Interpreting Certificate. He is the 1989 winner of the N.C. Governor's Advocacy Council for Persons with Disabilities Distinguished Service Award, the 1979 winner of the Robert D. Frisina Award for deaf/hearing integration, the 1996 winner of the “Outstanding Transition to the Community” from the South Carolina Mental Health Association and the 2001 “Interpreter of the Year” for the South Carolina Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf.

As the parent of four deaf children and two hearing children, a licensed foster parent and the spouse of a deaf adult, Mr. Williams is active in a number of local, state-wide, regional and national advocacy and social organizations, including the past president of the American Society for Deaf Children.

Accessing Community Health Workers for Deaf and Deaf Immigrants

Presented by Nathan Ellis, Anita Buel and Mary Edwards
ASL and English
Our session will be focused on what the community health worker role is and how it is being incorporated into the standards of practice and the coordinated care delivery system for Accredited Care Organization.
We will also focus on why and when the use of a community health worker should be implemented. We will discuss implications this has for hearing and deaf interpreters, and the changing face of the traditional care team.
We present data gathered about both spoken language and sign language-based CHWs and propose possible paths for future exploration of how these groups can work together to create a truly patient-centered experience.

Anita Buel is a certified community health worker, and is currently employed by DICE and HCMC. She is a long-time community leader and advocate for deaf education. Her experience led her to co-produce a film, “Signing On,” about Deaf breast cancer survivors in Minnesota, which has had a significant impact on both the medical community and the deaf community.  In 2008, she was awarded the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation Community Health Leaders Award. The CHL award honors individuals who overcome daunting odds to improve the health and quality of life of men, women and children in underserved communities.  

Mary Edwards is a certified community health worker, and is currently employed by DICE and HCMC. She is a 2008 graduate of the Summit Academy Community Health Worker program. She has been a diligent advocate for members of Minnesota’s unique deaf immigrant population, and is very knowledgeable about the pathways to citizenship and is happy to highlight the potential pitfalls in this cumbersome process.

Nathan Ellis graduated from the University of Wisconsin at Madison and has worked at Hennepin County Medical Center for nearly 12 years. He began his career as an EMT working in the HCMC Emergency Department. He later became a Spanish interpreter. After attending both St. Kate’s and St. Paul College, Nathan went to Gallaudet to continue his ASL training. He holds NIC certification. Currently he is Coordinator of Services for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing at HCMC. He is also the founder and director of the Deaf & Immigrant Center for Education.

Tuesday July 24, 2012 9-10:45 a.m.

The Role of Video Remote Interpreting in the Healthcare Setting

Presented by Carla Mathers
English with ASL interpretation
This plenary session regarding the role of remote interpreting in the healthcare setting will explore the development of the technology over time. The presentation will trace the history of video technology in healthcare settings. Some research, conducted in the United States and abroad, will be reviewed, though much of it relates to videoconferencing in the legal setting, analogies can be drawn. Finally, the session will introduce and mediate a panel of distinguished guests.

Carla M. Mathers, Esquire, CSC, SC: L, has practiced law in the state and federal courts of Maryland and the District of Columbia for 18 years. She serves as General Counsel for TCS Associates, a prominent sign language interpreting service in Maryland. Ms. Mathers also sits on the Advisory Group for Language Access to develop standards for court interpretation for the American Bar Association.  In addition to practicing law, Ms. Mathers teaches legal interpreting for the DOIT Center of the University of Northern Colorado and Gallaudet University, consults with interpreters, attorneys and courts regarding ASL court interpreting throughout the country, is a member of the NCIEC Legal Interpreting Work Group, and currently serves as Vice President for the Conference of Interpreter Trainers. In 2006, Ms. Mathers published Sign Language Interpreters in Court:  Understanding Best Practices, a text for interpreters, attorneys and courts to understand the principles underlying ASL court interpreting. Her other writings may be found at  

Tuesday July 24, 2012 11-12 p.m.

Improving Access to Medical Facilities One Ally at a Time

Presented by Marty Barnum and Heather Gilbert
Where federal and state statutes may contain unclear language for determining the make-up of a “qualified” interpreter, settlement agreements between Deaf individuals and healthcare facilities in Minnesota provide authoritative language that sets a clear standard for interpreter certifications and accessibility obligations for Deaf and hard of hearing patients. With the spark from empowered Deaf citizens, thoughtful interpreters, perseverant advocates and assertive lawyers, Minnesota is now a leading state for communication access in healthcare settings.
This workshop will include a brief explanation of settlement agreements and current Minnesota healthcare communication access standards. The majority of the workshop will cover the ally model of interpreting in healthcare settings, considerations and boundaries for manifesting the ally model, options for responding to discriminatory communication from healthcare providers, and appropriate language choices for sharing information and/or community resources.
At the conclusion of this session, participants will be able to list two major law suits in Minnesota that resulted in changes in hospital policies and practices, three tools for responding as an ally interpreter, and three intervention boundaries to consider when acting as an ally interpreter.

Marty Barnum, MA, CSC is a nationally certified interpreter with a focus on medical interpreting.  Ms. Barnum’s educational background includes undergraduate work in communication and linguistics, and graduate work in intercultural communication and clinical psychology.  She was the director of the Health Care Interpreting Program at the former St. Mary’s Campus of the College of St. Catherine (currently St. Catherine University) for 15 years before working with Deaf and Hard of Hearing Services in MN to provide advocacy to individuals who were being denied access to communication services.  A major result of this work is the Minnesota Hospital Consortium (MHC) which was established in 2005 and continues today.  Ms. Barnum has presented nationally and internationally on the topic of interpreting in healthcare settings.
Heather Gilbert, Esq., CI/CT, SC:L, is the owner and attorney at Gilbert Law, PLLC where she provides general transactional and litigation services. She is also one of eight Minnesota RID SC:L interpreters. Ms. Gilbert graduated cum laude with a Juris Doctor degree from William Mitchell College of Law and obtained her Bachelor of Arts in sign language interpretation from Bethel College, IN.  She was admitted to the Minnesota State Bar in May. Before practicing law, Ms. Gilbert worked for ten years as a court sign language interpreter and as an advocate for CSD of Minnesota.   As an advocate, she assertively advocated for Deaf individuals experiencing barriers to communication access in medical and legal settings. She has provided trainings statewide for medical and legal administrators, workshops for sign language interpreters, and self-advocacy trainings to empower Deaf and hard of hearing people of all ages. 

Designing Designated Interpreters

Presented by Alicia Booth
During this session, suspend your beliefs and traditional interpreting practices. Open your perspective to the challenges of working on the other side of the curtain. Explore with Josh, a deaf medical student, and Alicia, Lead Designated Interpreter, how they manage communication for a clinical-based environment that ebbs and flows constantly throughout the day. They will discuss the many possibilities one may encounter in a clinical environment, and share strategies they developed to customize communication for the deaf professionals’ needs. Maybe you have heard of a CART writer, real time transcriptionist, but have never teamed with one? We will explain how to incorporate CART writers as a customized part of a communication’s team experience.
This session will also address how some common personality tendencies don’t enhance the goal of achieving a cohesive medical team. Alicia and Josh will also share techniques to develop a team of designated and non-designated support interpreters and CART providers, while keeping patient care at the highest level. This session will help prepare you for encounters with Deaf Medical Professionals whether you are part of their team, or you encounter them in the vast world of medicine.

Alicia Booth holds a B.A. in Journalism and a B.S. in Signed Language Interpretation from the University of New Mexico. She has worked as a staff and freelance interpreter for over ten years. During a mentorship with Sign Language Associates in Washington, D.C., Ms. Booth developed her skills in medical interpreting. The day to day encounters with patients and medical staff became more and more alluring, which led to interpreting on-call emergency work. Currently, Alicia serves as the Lead Designated Interpreter at the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health.

Tuesday July 24, 2012 11-5 p.m.

The Healthcare Interpreter as a Practice Profession Specialist

Presented by Dr. Rachel St. John and Jay Penuel
This workshop is an interactive experience using a modern approach to interpreting in the healthcare setting. The workshop focuses on the team approach, in which the interpreter functions as an active member of the healthcare team. Working as a practice professional, rather than an “invisible technician,” allows the interpreter to provide input to achieve linguistic and professional presence. Case scenarios and ethical discussions based on current research allow participants to actively explore this model during the workshop.
Additionally, this workshop will provide an introduction to how medical, legal and ethical issues connect in the healthcare environment. Participants will discuss healthcare law and how it applies in emergency, inpatient, outpatient, and diagnostic settings.
This workshop is intended for interpreters of varying skill levels, from those just entering the field to experienced interpreters looking to increase their effectiveness in the healthcare setting.

Jay Penuel, CI and CT, NIC Advanced, OTC, SC:L, is a certified interpreter and transliterator, specializing in legal, conference, government and medical interpreting.  He is the co-founder of MedTerp, providing professional development education for medical interpreters.  Currently, he is a staff interpreter for Deaf Access Solutions and INOVA Health Systems, working primarily in the Metro D.C. area.

Rachel St. John, MD, NCC, NIC-Advanced, is a board-certified pediatrician, and a certified sign language interpreter through RID.  She is the co-founder of MedTerp, providing professional development education for medical interpreters.  Currently, she is a health education consultant in Texas and at the national level, as well as a freelance interpreter specializing in medical encounters. 

Tuesday July 24, 2012 1:30-5 p.m.

Uncovering the Truth about VRI in Medical Settings

Presented by Teri Hedding and Nancy Campbell
Video Remote Interpreting (VRI) is a fast-growing service that is being implemented in medical settings nationwide. Hospitals and clinics are now turning to this technology to provide communication for Deaf and hard of hearing patients. Most vendors have invested in the business of video technology and provided services with little or no knowledge about American Sign Language or the Deaf community. It was only within the last few years that standard practices for VRI have been developed by professionals with expertise in interpreting and an understanding of Deaf Culture. These best practices will be highlighted throughout the presentation.
Sinai Health System’s manager, Teri Hedding and staff interpreter Nancy Campbell have worked in a VRI setting for the past three years. They will share their experiences, provide information, and highlight the benefits and drawbacks of using VRI to facilitate communication. The perspectives of Deaf patients, physicians, medical staff, and interpreters will be discussed.
Participants will identify the differences between VRI and Video Relay Services (VRS) as well as the different models of VRI service providers. Special considerations when working in the VRI environment will also be included, such as interpreting in psychiatric settings or for patients who have unique language skills.

Nancy Campbell is a part-time staff interpreter at Mt. Sinai Hospital providing medical interpreting in the hospital and clinics onsite, as well as through video remote interpreting.  After obtaining her RID CI & CT in 2000, Nancy has enjoyed a career as a freelance interpreter. Over the years, Nancy has gained experience interpreting in a wide variety of settings, including; medical, legal, educational, and video relay service. Prior to interpreting, Nancy earned a Master of Science in Speech and Language Pathology from Northern Illinois University, and went on to teach communication skills to deaf and hard of hearing children. Photography keeps Nancy busy in her free time, capturing the beauty in every day sights.

Teri Hedding works at Sinai Health System as a manager of the deaf program where she is responsible for day-to-day management of interpreters and healthcare access to serve Deaf and hard of hearing patients.  She also provides health education for the Deaf community. Prior to her current job, she worked in Department of Human Services/Office of Mental Health as a Statewide Coordinator of Deaf and Hard of Hearing Services where she ensured that the delivery of mental health services to people who are deaf or hard of hearing met high standards of quality and accessibility.  Her work experience includes counseling, case management, crisis intervention, and advocacy.  She received her master’s degree in mental health counseling from Gallaudet University in Washington, D.C. in 1993.  She became a certified deaf interpreter (CDI) in December 2009.

Interpreting Psychotherapy: A Deaf Psychologist’s Perspective

Presented by Dr. Laurie Lee Johnson
Sign language interpreting in psychotherapy presents unique challenges for the interpreter, the psychotherapist, and the client. In addition to technical skill and vocabulary, the interpreter needs to be aware of the nuances of emotional language, pauses, intentional lack of structure, and ambiguous forms of questions.
Interpreters must remain mindful of their own emotions during interpreting in psychotherapy, and often have limited opportunities to deal with residual emotions in a healthy way. The presentation will focus on developing skills for healthy processing of emotions that arise during confidential and stressful interpreting in psychotherapy.
Participants will develop skills for processing emotions in a confidential setting, in order to maintain their own emotional health and avoid secondary trauma.
Additionally, we will focus on the “Top Ten Things a Mental Health Interpreter Should Know”, including different types of mental health treatment, approaches to psychotherapy, psychological evaluation, testing, and diagnosis. Empathy and self-care will be addressed. The National Association of the Deaf position paper on culturally affirmative and linguistically accessible mental health treatment will be discussed.

Laurie Lee Johnson, Ph.D., is a deaf psychologist in private practice in Minneapolis-St. Paul.  She completed her Ph.D. and M.A. at the University of Minnesota, and her B.A. at Macalester College in St. Paul. Dr. Johnson specializes in serving the deaf and deafblind community, providing psychological assessment and treatment that is culturally appropriate.  She has taught and presented internationally on topics related to deafness and mental health, differential diagnosis, and cultural identity in psychotherapy. Cross-cultural experiences that have influenced her psychotherapeutic approaches include studies at the University of Vienna, Austria, University of Cologne, Germany, and teaching and consulting for programs serving deaf people in Europe and South Africa.

Relational Autonomy

Presented by Anna Witter-Merrithew and Brenda Nicodemus
English with ASL
In our presentation we make the claim that relational autonomy is a paradigm with crucial implications for guiding the decision-making of interpreters and suggest that developing awareness of the various manifestations of autonomous decision-making could affect how interpreters view and analyze their own decisions. This presentation will introduce a conceptual framework for relational autonomy and focus on its application to ethical decision making by interpreters working in healthcare settings.
Professional autonomy is a condition that results from a profession’s deep conceptualization of the professional acts and professional practices of its members and the agreement of its members to behave and act in a manner that is similar to each other. However, adhering to such a paradigm is challenging. Interpreter autonomy is in reality relational as a result of the very social structures upon which it depends for its existence—legislative mandates, system-based policy, procedures and practices, and a unique bond to the language communities served.
Appreciating relational autonomy requires an understanding of the conditions which foster informed and transparent decision-making and those that restrict it. For example, interpreters in the healthcare setting are afforded a high degree of autonomy due to the context in which their work occurs. Conversely, interpreters working in the VRS industry experience restrictions in the degree of decision latitude they can apply due to industry/system standards. The degree of decision latitude afforded to interpreters working in various settings is also impacted by a wide range of factors. These differences in the professional standing and decision latitude of practitioners in different work settings have significant implications for the work of interpreters. Understanding relational autonomy, its application to the work of interpreters in healthcare settings and its implications for decision latitude, can contribute to our ongoing efforts to achieve professionalization as a field.

Brenda Nicodemus, Ph.D., is a research scientist at the Laboratory for Language and Cognitive Neuroscience at San Diego State University where she studies the cognitive processes of signed language interpreters. She has worked professionally as an interpreter since 1989 and holds the certifications (CI, CT, NIC-A) from the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf. She holds a PhD in Educational Linguistics from the University of New Mexico. Brenda has taught interpreting at various postsecondary institutions and has presented both nationally and internationally. Her publications include Prosodic Markers and Utterance Boundaries in American Sign Language Interpreting (Gallaudet University Press, 2009).

Anna Witter-Merithew, M.Ed., CSC, SC:L, OIC:C, SC:PA, CI and CT, is the Assistant Director for the UNC-DO IT Center. She is responsible for the instructional programs, including a baccalaureate degree program in ASL interpreting and several specialty certificate programs. She serves as a member of the National Consortium of Interpreter Education Center’s Effective Practices Team and is the Team Leader for the Legal Interpreting Workgroup. Anna earned a master’s degree in Education from Athabasca University with emphasis in instructional design and distance learning. She holds various certificates awarded by the Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, has served in various leadership roles within RID and CIT, and authored numerous publications.

Tuesday July 24, 2012 6:30-7:30 p.m.

Task Force on Healthcare Careers for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing Community

Presented by Kathy Miraglia
Language concordance and cultural competency are key to delivering quality health care. Deaf and hard of hearing communities are sorely underrepresented among our healthcare workforce. This leads to challenges with communication, cultural competency and advocacy for our deaf and hard of hearing individuals seeking quality health care. To address this need, a unique partnership, among several institutions (National Technical Institute for the Deaf at the Rochester Institute of Technology, Gallaudet University, National Center on Deaf Health Research at the University of Rochester Medical Center, and Rochester General Health System) established a task force represented by a variety of deaf and hearing health and educational professionals from across the country.
The task force has provided a national review paper to disseminate ideas on how to expand opportunities for deaf and hard of hearing individuals within health care professions through increased accessibility strategies and options, the coordination and development of educational programs, and advocating for inclusive policy. Recommendations regarding the training and provision of interpreter services in healthcare to meet the increasing need of D/HH healthcare workers will be outlined as proposed by the Task Force Interim Report June, 2011 and the culminating final White Paper due by the end of March, 2012.

Kathy Miraglia has more than 30 years of experience as an interpreter, manager, and educator in the field of sign language interpretation. She managed the Interpreter Services Program at the University of Rochester Medical Center for 23 years before joining the full-time faculty at the National Technical Institute for the Deaf in fall 2009 as the Healthcare Interpreter Program Coordinator.

Tuesday July 24, 2012 6:30-9:00 p.m.

The 5 Ps of Preparation

Presented by Christa Moran and Andi Chumley

Medical interpreters work in a myriad of setting from veterinarian offices to nursing schools, to emergency rooms. The variety of situations also varies greatly including everything from birth to end of life. The key to being successful in any of these settings is to be prepared. According to Napier et al. (2006), “by thinking about assignments beforehand, and reflecting on them afterwards, interpreters can create a greater sense of control through self-awareness about their performance and level of competence.”

In this workshop, The 5 P’s of Preparation, the instructors will introduce a strategy to help medical interpreters consider the beforehand aspects of any assignment. These 5 P’s: purpose, place, people, procedure, and possible outcomes, are compiled from interpreter interviews, and current best standards of practices taken from the National Council on Interpreting in Health Care and the CATIE Center NCIEC Domains and Competencies. With the use of the 5P Strategy, interpreters will be able to mentally review a thorough, yet concise checklist to help prepare them for appropriate entrance into any healthcare interpreting situation.

Andi Chumley has been a full-time staff interpreter at the University of Michigan Hospital since 2006.  She received her B.S. in Deaf Education from MacMurray College in Jacksonville, Illinois.  She taught at the Illinois School for the Deaf from 1998-2005. Andi has been interpreting since 2000 in medical, post-secondary, legal and other settings. She is the coordinator of the Translation Division at UMHS, managing the translation of medical documents in over 10 languages. Andi helps develop and conducts instructional courses for interpreters and medical personnel. In partnership with Christa Moran, she developed a 15-hour course: “Basic Skills for Medical Interpreting.”

Christa Moran has been a staff interpreter at the University of Michigan Hospital for the past 8 years. She has a B.A. from the University of Michigan and an M.A. in Special Education/Deaf Education from the University of Minnesota. She regularly conducts trainings for interpreters and UMHS faculty and staff. She and Andi Chumley have developed and now teach a 15 hour medical interpreter training that is attended by interpreters from across the state of Michigan. She is also a member of the U of M Disability Council where she champions accessibility and ADA compliance for Deaf patients and their families.

Wednesday, July 25, 2012 9-10:45 a.m.

Examining Discourse in Healthcare: Pedagogy, practice and research in ASL-English interpreting

Presentation and panel discussion facilitated by Laurie Swabey and Brenda Nicodemus
English with ASL Interpretation
In the U.S., legislation guarantees communication access for Deaf citizens in the healthcare system, access that is often made possible by ASL-English interpreters. However there is a conspicuous lack of research on either direct or interpreted discourse in this setting. We discuss the implications of research for the education and practice of signed language interpreters who work in the medical settings. We draw from an ongoing research project in which we examined direct vs mediated communication as provided by Deaf physicians and ASL-English interpreters. Following our presentation, a panel of experts engages in a provocative discussion related to fostering communication equity through interpreter education and research.

Laurie Swabey, Ph.D., is a professor of Interpreting at St. Catherine University in St. Paul, Minnesota and the director of the CATIE Center.  She holds a Ph.D. from the University of Minnesota in Linguistics and her research interests include healthcare interpreting, relevance theory and interpreting and the organization of deaf physician-deaf patient discourse. She has served as a member of the Advisory Committee for the National Council on Interpreting in Healthcare (NCIHC) and is currently an advisor to the CCHI (Certification Commission for Healthcare Interpreters).  Recent publications include In our hands: Educating healthcare interpreters (Gallaudet University Press, 2012, co-editor Karen Malcolm) and Advances in Interpreting Research (John Benjamins, 2011, co-editor Brenda Nicodemus).

Wednesday, July 25, 2012 11-12 p.m.

NTID’s Certificate in Healthcare Interpreting

Presented by Kathy Miraglia
Specialized interpreter training in healthcare is sorely lacking within our profession. The ASL and Interpreting Education program at the Rochester Institute of Technology/National Technical Institute for the Deaf has created a much needed and innovative program to improve and expand educational opportunities for interpreters interested in specializing in healthcare. This presentation will introduce the newly created “Certificate in Healthcare Interpreting” program (CHI) which includes more than 160 hours of classroom instruction and practical experience.

From the Horse’s Mouth: Identifying Factors for Effective Healthcare Interpreting Practice by ASL Interpreters in Two Cities

Presented by Lori Whynot
Signed language interpreters working in health care settings can quickly recount situations that went awry or posed barriers to effectiveness, yet rarely are they questioned about successes. Challenges faced are often behavioral more than linguistic, pivoting on role expectations and conflicts experienced by interpreters. While 13 competency areas have been identified which ASL interpreters in health care settings should possess (CATIE Center, 2008), there is a need to further understand how these competency areas play out in real world settings where signed language interpreters work and report successes. This presentation highlights themes in day-to-day effective decisions made in the trenches. Reports from working practitioners in two metropolitan northeast US cities are collected via informational interviews and questionnaires. Responses offer insight into approaches in healthcare settings that make for effectiveness. Several strategies are identified that can inform signed language interpreter practice.

Lori A. Whynot, M.A., CI, CT, SC: L is a trainer and interpreter of 21 years, specializing in health care, conference, legal settings, and Deaf/Hearing teams. Since her native Boston childhood, she has maintained a fascination with gross bodily functions and currently works on an Applied Linguistics Ph.D. in Australia.

When a Research Plan Doesn’t Go as Planned

Presented by Cynthia Roy
Cynthia Roy describes the progress and challenges of a grant project designed to collect, transcribe, code and analyze interpreted encounters in a variety of institutional settings. Her discussion focuses on the challenges inherent in such a project, such as: consent forms, filming, participants, camera angles, and transcription, and then shares recent analyses. This presentation will prepare participants to explain the basic process of a research project, and to describe basic challenges for doing research on interpreting.

Cynthia Roy is professor and Ph.D. Coordinator in the Interpretation Department at Gallaudet University in Washington, D.C. She has been an educator and interpreter researcher for over 30 years. She holds a doctorate in Sociolinguistics from Georgetown University and her dissertation was published as Interpreting as a Discourse Process by Oxford University Press in 2000. Cynthia is also the series editor of the Interpreter Education series, and editor of the first three volumes. Her recent publications include: as editor, Discourse in Signed Languages, Volume 17 of the Sociolinguistics of Deaf Communities series published by Gallaudet University Press in 2011; With co-author Melanie Metzger, The first three years of a three year grant: When a research plan doesn’t go as planned, in B. Nicodemus and L. Swabey (eds). Advances in Interpreting Research, published by John Benjamins in 2011; and with co-author Melanie Metzger, Sociolinguistic Studies of Signed Language Interpreting, in R. Bailey, R. Cameron, and C. Lucas (eds.) Oxford Handbook of Sociolinguistics, to be published by Oxford University Press in early 2012.

Wednesday, July 25, 2012 1:30-5 p.m.

A Framework for Teaching Healthcare Interpreting Online

Presented by Doug Bowen-Bailey
Online formats are fast becoming a popular format for interpreter education. In teaching about healthcare interpreting, it is important to consider how to make effective use of this medium. Too often, online education addresses only the more basic levels of Bloom’s taxonomy of educational objectives – remembering and understanding. Yet interpreting in a healthcare setting requires the more complicated skills of analyzing, applying, and evaluating.
This workshop will outline a framework for creating online resources that support interpreters in the development of these higher order skills. Based on the educational theory of Lev Vygotsky, this approach will be shown through case studies of online workshops developed by Doug Bowen-Bailey for the CATIE Center.
Participants will be able to apply this framework in their own development of curricula, as well as see how the workshops might apply to their current teaching and practice.

Doug Bowen-Bailey is an interpreter, educator and resource developer who lives in Duluth, Minnesota.  He has partnered to create a variety of video and online resources for interpreter education. Current projects include creating online modules for interpreter education as well as one for healthcare providers on communication access for patients.

Equivalent Interpreting and Cultural Competence in Medical Settings

Presented by Fallon Brizendine
The goal of this workshop is to provide basic understanding and comfort with medical terminology in English and ASL through a close examination of interpretations for common conditions, disorders, tests, and procedures. We also cover other information about the health care system that is relevant to the interpreter, such as HIPAA and medical ethics.
Participants will use resources to deliver ASL interpretations of certain topics, and view sample ASL interpretations. This workshop gives an overview of medical interpreting situations as applied to prepared scenarios. We will practice using affect and classifiers in structured activities related to anatomy and medical procedures; and identify resources for continuing professional development.
Participants will:
1) Apply role playing and scenarios to further develop cultural competence in medical interpreting
2) Analyze and determine effective interpretation in cultural mediation
3) Apply structured interpreting techniques and interpret messages using a cultural approach.
4) Be able to identify and interpret common medical terminology such as conditions, disorders, tests, and procedures.

Fallon Brizendine, M.A.I., CDI, is the fourth generation in her family to be born Deaf. Not only has she utilized interpreters her entire life, but she holds a Master of Arts in Interpretation from Gallaudet University, one of the few Deaf interpreters to hold this degree. Fallon interprets in post-secondary, legal, medical, mental health, and educational settings. She also teaches interpretation courses and is the coordinator of interpreting internship program at St. Petersburg College in Clearwater, Florida. She has provided numerous workshops on interpreting topics and can be seen on multiple ASL DVDs and websites, most notably where she is the primary translator of medical text to ASL. Fallon is actively involved in numerous Deaf community events including DPN, Deaf Way, WFD conferences, NAD conferences, Deaflympics, and more. A diehard Washington Redskins football fan, Fallon hopes to one day score the game winning touchdown in the Super Bowl. You can reach Fallon through her website:

Garbage In, Garbage Out: Vicarious Trauma and Boundaries in Healthcare Interpreting

Presented by Lori Whynot
Signed language interpreters working in health care settings are required to make moment-to-moment ethical decisions in the middle of various demands as indentified by Dean and Pollard (2001, 2004). Since challenges interpreters face are often behavioral and pivot on role expectations vis-a-vis conflicts experienced, one key competency needed is a clear understanding of boundaries: setting and maintain them in light of various stressors. The ability of practitioners to understand and maintain personal boundaries is critical in medical and mental health settings, as our presence in interpreted dyads and triads can influence the parties in the setting.
Furthermore, in highly emotional and stressful situations interpreters are susceptible to “vicarious trauma” (Harvey, 2003). Highly effective interpreters are ones who can manage the stressors that come with challenges in these settings during the job and beyond.
This workshop presents some of the factors that make for stress in health care settings and offers tools for maintaining balance and boundaries during and after work assignments. Through lecture, discussion and group practice activities, participants will learn to identify their own vulnerability in medical and mental health settings, strategize ways to cope with stress and emotional trauma, and effectively re-frame situations to reduce vulnerability.

Lori A. Whynot, M.A., CI, CT, SC: L is a trainer and interpreter of 21 years, specializing in health care, conference, legal settings, and Deaf/Hearing teams. Since her native Boston childhood, she has maintained a fascination with gross bodily functions and currently works on an Applied Linguistics Ph.D. in Australia.